spring 常用的注入方式有哪些?

2019-09-22   阅读(53)  

1、xml中配置

  • bean 的申明、注册

<bean> 节点注册 bean
<bean> 节点的 factory-bean 参数指工厂 bean,factory-method 参数指定工厂方法

 

  • bean 的注入

<property> 节点使用 set 方式注入
<constructor-arg> 节点使用 构造方法注入

 

实测代码

maven pom 文件 

<dependency>
	<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
	<artifactId>spring-beans</artifactId>
	<version>4.2.4.RELEASE</version>
</dependency>

<dependency>
	<groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
	<artifactId>spring-context</artifactId>
	<version>4.2.4.RELEASE</version>
</dependency>

 

a) <bean> + <property>,set方法注入

class Bowl

package constxiong.interview.inject;

public class Bowl {

	public void putRice() {
		System.out.println("盛饭...");
	}

}

class Person

package constxiong.interview.inject;

public class Person {

	private Bowl bowl;
	
	public void eat() {
		bowl.putRice();
		System.out.println("开始吃饭...");
	}

	public void setBowl(Bowl bowl) {
		this.bowl = bowl;
	}
	
}

spring 配置文件

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
	xsi:schemaLocation="
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans 
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
	    http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd">
        
	<bean id="bowl" class="constxiong.interview.inject.Bowl" />
	
	<bean id="person" class="constxiong.interview.inject.Person">
		<property name="bowl" ref="bowl"></property>
	</bean>
	
</beans>

测试类

package constxiong.interview.inject;

import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.support.ClassPathXmlApplicationContext;

public class InjectTest {

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		ApplicationContext context = new ClassPathXmlApplicationContext("spring_inject.xml");
		Person person = (Person)context.getBean("person");
		person.eat();
	}
}

 

 b) 修改为 配置文件和class Person,<bean> + <constructor-arg> 节点使用 构造方法注入

class Person

package constxiong.interview.inject;
 
public class Person {
 
	private Bowl bowl;
	
	public Person(Bowl bowl) {
		this.bowl = bowl;
	}
	
	public void eat() {
		bowl.putRice();
		System.out.println("开始吃饭...");
	}
	
}

spring 配置文件

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
	xsi:schemaLocation="
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans 
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
	    http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd">
        
	<bean id="bowl" class="constxiong.interview.inject.Bowl" />
	
	<bean id="person" class="constxiong.interview.inject.Person">
		<constructor-arg name="bowl" ref="bowl"></constructor-arg>
	</bean>
	
</beans>

 

c) <bean> 节点 factory-method 参数指定静态工厂方法

工厂类,静态工厂方法

package constxiong.interview.inject;
 
public class BowlFactory {
 
	public static final Bowl getBowl() {
		return new Bowl();
	}
	
}

spring 配置文件

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
	xsi:schemaLocation="
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans 
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
	    http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd">
        
	<bean id="bowl" class="constxiong.interview.inject.BowlFactory" factory-method="getBowl"/>
	
	<bean id="person" class="constxiong.interview.inject.Person">
		<constructor-arg name="bowl" ref="bowl"></constructor-arg>
	</bean>
	
</beans>

 

d) 非静态工厂方法,需要指定工厂 bean 和工厂方法

工厂类,非静态工厂方法

package constxiong.interview.inject;
 
public class BowlFactory {
 
	public Bowl getBowl() {
		return new Bowl();
	}
	
}

配置文件

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
	xsi:schemaLocation="
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans 
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
	    http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd">
    
    <bean id="bowlFactory" class="constxiong.interview.inject.BowlFactory"></bean>   
	<bean id="bowl" factory-bean="bowlFactory" factory-method="getBowl"/>
	
	<bean id="person" class="constxiong.interview.inject.Person">
		<constructor-arg name="bowl" ref="bowl"></constructor-arg>
	</bean>
	
</beans>

 

2、注解

  • bean 的申明、注册

@Component //注册所有bean
@Controller //注册控制层的bean
@Service //注册服务层的bean
@Repository //注册dao层的bean

 

  • bean 的注入

@Autowired 作用于 构造方法、字段、方法,常用于成员变量字段之上。
@Autowired + @Qualifier 注入,指定 bean 的名称
@Resource JDK 自带注解注入,可以指定 bean 的名称和类型等

 

测试代码

e) spring 配置文件,设置注解扫描目录

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
	xsi:schemaLocation="
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans 
		http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
	    http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd">
        
	<context:component-scan base-package="constxiong.interview" />
	
</beans>

 

class Bowl

package constxiong.interview.inject;
 
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;
//import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
//import org.springframework.stereotype.Repository;
//import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;
 
@Component //注册所有bean
//@Controller //注册控制层的bean
//@Service //注册服务层的bean
//@Repository //注册dao层的bean
public class Bowl {
 
	public void putRice() {
		System.out.println("盛饭...");
	}
 
}

 

class Person

package constxiong.interview.inject;
 
//import javax.annotation.Resource;
//
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
//import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Qualifier;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;
 
@Component //注册所有bean
//@Controller //注册控制层的bean
//@Service //注册服务层的bean
//@Repository //注册dao层的bean
public class Person {
 
	@Autowired
//	@Qualifier("bowl")
//	@Resource(name="bowl")
	private Bowl bowl;
 
	public void eat() {
		bowl.putRice();
		System.out.println("开始吃饭...");
	}
	
}

 

测试类同上

 

a、b、c、d、e 测试结果都ok

盛饭...
开始吃饭...

 

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